Geant examples PreviousNext

This document explains the individual geant examples and how to use them. It serves as a first draft version for the geant documentation. All examples should be invoked from the commandline.

Here ist the commandline syntax of geant:

geant [-V][-v|--verbose][-b|--buildfile <buildfile>] [-D<varname>=<varvalue>]* [target]

Getting started

cd to the examples/hello directory and type 'geant'. You should see the following output:

		
Hello world

Let's have a look at the project file which produces this output:

  <project name="hello" default="hi">
    <target name="hi">
      <echo message="Hello world"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

Since we do not provide a buildfile on the commandline the default name (build.eant) is used. With the option '-b' respectively '--buildfile' it is possible to use a different file. There is no target specified on the commandline either. In this case geant tries to find a 'default' attribute in the <project> element by which the start target for the build process can be specified. When there is no default attribute geant gives up and terminates with the message 'Cannot determine start target.'.

With the option '-v' respectively '--verbose' geant's output is more verbose:

Loading Project's configuration from build.eant

  Building Project

  hello.hi:

    [echo]
  Hello world
        	

A target can have an optional 'description' subelement which should describe briefly what the target does. It must be the first subelement. In a future version there will be a '--projecthelp' commandline option which will just list all the targetnames with its description without starting the build process.

A <target> element may contain zero or more task elements as direct children. Each task element is executed in sequential order. The specific action which is performed is dependent on the individual tasks.

The only task which our 'hi' target contains is <echo>. <echo> has a single attribute called 'message' and this message is printed to stdout. This is the reason why you see 'Hello world' on your screen.

In the following sections all other examples are explained. We usually do not use 'build.eant' as filename for the examples since we have mostly more than one build file in a directory.

Variables

The following example shows how to set and query the value variables. cd to examples/variables and open the buildfile 'variable1.eant'

  <project name="variables1" default="var">
    <target name="var">
      <description>set and query a variable</description>
        <set name="who" value="world"/>
        <echo message="Hello ${who}"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

Invoking 'geant -v -b variables1.eant' produces:

  Loading Project's configuration from variables1.eant
  Building Project

  variables1.var:

    [set] who=world
    [echo]
  Hello world
        	

With the <set> task a variable can be defined. The 'name' attribute specifies the name of the variable and the 'value' attribute it's value. The values of variables can be retrieved using the ${<variablename>} syntax. Thus ${who} in the examples returns 'world'.

The value of a variable can be overridden by a -D option on the commandline

'geant -v -b variables1.eant -Dwho=Eiffel' produces:

  Loading Project's configuration from variables1.eant
  Building Project

  variables1.var:

    [set] who=world
    [echo]
  Hello world
        	

Loading Project's configuration from variables1.eant Building Project variables1.var: [set] who=world [echo] Hello Eiffel

Cascading Variables

cd to examples/variables and open buildfile 'variables2.eant':

  <project name="variables2" default="var">
    <target name="var">
      <description>set and query a variable</description>
      <set name="firstname" value="Bart"/>
      <set name="fullname" value="${firstname} Simpson"/>
      <echo message="Hello ${fullname}"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b variable2.eant' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from variables2.eant
Building Project

variables2.var:

  [set] firstname=Bart
  [set] fullname=Bart Simpson
  [echo]
Hello Bart Simpson
        	

This examples demonstrates how variables can be constructed from other variables.

exec

cd to examples/exec and open the buildfile 'dir.eant' (for Windows only):

  <project name="dir" default="dir">
    <target name="dir">
      <description>executes a dir command under dos/windows</description>
      <set name="directory" value="."/>
      <exec executable="dir ${directory}"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b dir.eant' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from dir.eant
Building Project

dir.dir:

  [set] directory=.
  [exec] dir .
 Volume in drive D is D
 Volume Serial Number is 5C52-67D3

 Directory of D:\svnstuff\gobo-eiffel\gobo\example\geant\exec

09/08/2002  07:32a      <DIR>          .
09/08/2002  07:32a      <DIR>          ..
05/04/2002  01:45p               2,429 build.eant
11/26/2002  08:41p      <DIR>          .svn
09/01/2001  01:30p                 261 dir.eant
09/01/2001  01:30p                 519 dir2.eant
09/08/2002  07:32a                 875 exec1.eant
09/01/2001  01:30p                 251 ls.eant
               5 File(s)          4,335 bytes
               3 Dir(s)   7,162,626,048 bytes free
        	

The exec task can be used as a general means to execute a command as one would do on the commandline. This can always be used when there is no appropriate task available. The attribute 'executable' takes the exact string one would specify on the commandline after replacing possibly existing variables.

On Unix call: 'geant -b ls.eant' which produces the same output as a 'ls -l' command on the commandline would show.

geant

cd to examples/geant and open buildfile 'geant1.eant':

  <project name="geant" default="one">
    <target name="one">
      <description>calls other ant files</description>
      <set name="who" value="Bart"/>

      <set name="buildfile" value="../variables/variables5.eant"/>

      <echo message="------------------------"/>
      <echo message="before call of ${buildfile}"/>
      <geant file="${buildfile}" target="var"/>
      <echo message="after call of ${buildfile}"/>
      <echo message="-------" />
      <echo message="before call of ${buildfile}"/>
      <geant file="${buildfile}" reuse_variables="true" target="var"/>
      <echo message="after call of ${buildfile}"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b geant1.eant' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from geant1.eant
Building Project

geant.one:

  [set] who=Bart
  [set] buildfile=../variables/variables5.eant
  [echo]
------------------------
  [echo]
before call of ../variables/variables5.eant
Loading Project's configuration from ..\variables\variables5.eant
Building Project

variables5.var:

  [echo]
Hello ${who}
  [echo]
after call of ../variables/variables5.eant
  [echo]
-------
  [echo]
before call of ../variables/variables5.eant
Loading Project's configuration from ..\variables\variables5.eant
Building Project

variables5.var:

  [echo]
Hello Bart
  [echo]
after call of ../variables/variables5.eant
        	

With the geant task other geant files can be invoked. This can be done in the within the same project scope (default behaviour) or in a new project scope when the 'file' attribute is set to 'true'. At the moment the big difference is that for an invocation in the same scope all defined variables are still available in the called build file. The example makes this visible by displaying 'Hello ${who}' instead of 'Hello Bart' for the first <geant> invokation. The second <geant> invocation passes all variables and thats why you see 'Hello Bart'.

In the future <geant> will be able to take arguments which can be passed to the called build project exactly like you can do it on the commandline already.

depend

Demonstrates the attribute 'depend' of targets. cd to examples/depends and open the buildscript 'depends1.eant'

  <project name="depend_demo" default="C">

    <target name="A">
      <echo message="A"/>
    </target>

    <target name="B" depend="A">
      <echo message="B"/>
    </target>

    <target name="C" depend="B">
      <echo message="C"/>
    </target>

  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b depends1.eant' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from depends1.eant
Building Project

depend_demo.A:

  [echo]
A

depend_demo.B:

  [echo]
B

depend_demo.C:

  [echo]
C
        	

With the XML attribute 'depend' targets can be made dependent on another. In the example target 'C' is dependent on target 'B'. This means that target 'B' will be executed before target 'C' is executed. It is possible to specify more than one target dependency using comma separated target names in the 'depend' attribute:

    <target name="C" depend="B,A" >
      <echo message="C" />
    </target>
        	

This means that target 'B' is executed first, then target 'A' and then target 'C'.

gexace

Demonstrates how to generate a compiler specific ace/esd file from a compiler independent xace file. It builds on the 'gexace' tool which is able to produce specific ace/esd files from xace files.

cd to examples/gexace and open buildfile 'buildfile build.eant'

  <project name="geant" default="compile">
    <target name="init">
      <set name="system" value="hello"/>
    </target>

    <target name="compile" depend="init">
      <description>compiles HELLO</description>
      <gexace system="ge" xace="${system}.xace"/>
      <gec ace="ge.xace"/>
    </target>

    <target name="run" depend="init">
      <description>executes example</description>
      <exec executable="${system}"/>
    </target>

    <target name="clean" depend="init">
      <description>deletes generated files</description>
      <gec clean="${system}"/>
      <delete file="${system}${exe}"/>
    </target>
  </project>
        	

Now invoke 'geant'. <gexace> calls the gexace tool which generates a SmartEiffel ace file. <se> then will compile our system using SmartEiffel

Now we could simply invoke the hello program from the commandline but since this would be too easy simply invoke 'geant -v run' which produces the following output:

Loading Project's configuration from build.eant
Building Project

geant.init:

  [set] system=hello

geant.run:

  [exec] hello
Hello World
        	

conditional/if,unless

Demonstrates the optional 'if' and 'unless' XML attributes of targets.

cd to examples/conditional and open buildfile 'if1.eant'

  <project name="if_demo1" default="C">

	<target name="A" if="$runa">
		<echo message="A"/>
	</target>

	<target name="B" if="${runb}">
		<echo message="B"/>
	</target>

	<target name="C" depend="A,B">
		<echo message="C"/>
	</target>

  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b if1.eant' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from if1.eant
Building Project

if_demo1.C:

  [echo]
C
        	

As values of the 'if' and 'unless' XML attributes of target elements you can use variable values and environmentvariables. This means the 'if' attribute returns true if the variable is defined otherwise true. The value of the variable does not matter. The same is true for 'unless' except that it returns true if it is not defined.

Since the variables 'runa' and 'runb' are not defined target 'A' and target 'B' do not produce any output.

e_you_like' produces:

Loading Project's configuration from if1.eant
Building Project

if_demo1.A:

  [echo]
A

if_demo1.C:

  [echo]
C
        	

geant -v -b if1.eant -Druna=any_value_you_like -Drunb=another_value_you_like

Loading Project's configuration from if1.eant
Building Project

if_demo1.A:

  [echo]
A

if_demo1.B:

  [echo]
B

if_demo1.C:

  [echo]
C
        	

As you can see the if's return true and targets 'A' respectively 'B' get executed.

The file unless1.eant contains the same examples but the if's have been replaced with unless's.

conditional/if2

Demonstrates how we can use 'if' and 'unless' to create a os independent buildfile. cd to examples/conditional and open buildfile 'if2.eant':

  <project name="if_demo2" default="list">

	<target name="list_for_windows" if="$WINDIR">
		<exec executable="dir"/>
	</target>

	<target name="list_for_unix" unless="$WINDIR">
		<exec executable="ls -l"/>
	</target>

	<target name="list" depend="list_for_windows,list_for_unix">
	</target>

  </project>
        	

'geant -v -b if2.eant' produces (windows only):

Loading Project's configuration from if2.eant
Building Project

if_demo2.list_for_windows:

  [exec] dir
 Volume in drive D is D
 Volume Serial Number is 5C52-67D3

 Directory of D:\svnstuff\gobo-eiffel\gobo\example\geant\conditional

09/03/2002  08:15p      <DIR>          .
09/03/2002  08:15p      <DIR>          ..
11/26/2002  08:41p      <DIR>          .svn
11/11/2001  10:58p                 261 if1.eant
11/11/2001  10:58p                 316 if2.eant
11/11/2001  10:58p                 593 if3.eant
11/11/2001  10:58p                 925 if4.eant
05/12/2002  05:30p                 724 if5.eant
09/03/2001  05:58p                 271 unless1.eant
               6 File(s)          3,090 bytes
               3 Dir(s)   7,162,556,416 bytes free

if_demo2.list:
        	

Note: for simplicity we assume here that if a environment variable 'windir' exists that we are in a windows environment. Otherwise we are on unix. This should be ok for most situations.

File if3.eant basically has the same behaviour but introduces an additional abstraction layer by introducing some variables defining the operating system:

  <project name="if_demo3" default="list">

    <target name="windows" if="$WINDIR">
      <set name="os.windows" value="true"/>
    </target>

    <target name="unix" unless="$WINDIR">
      <set name="os.unix" value="true"/>
    </target>

    <target name="init" depend="windows,unix">
    </target>


    <target name="list_for_windows" depend="init" if="$os.windows">
      <exec executable="dir"/>
    </target>

    <target name="list_for_unix" depend="init"  if="$os.unix">
      <exec executable="ls -l"/>
    </target>

    <target name="list" depend="list_for_windows,list_for_unix">
    </target>

  </project>
        	


Copyright 2002-2005, Sven Ehrke
mailto:ericb@gobosoft.com
http://www.gobosoft.com
Last Updated: 7 July 2005
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